#Drought is spreading across much of the #US, thanks #LaNiña #ENSO

US Drought Monitor January 30, 2018.

From USA Today (Doyle Rice):

As of Thursday, 38.4% of the continental U.S. is in a drought, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor. That is the highest percentage since the 40% recorded in May 2014.

In California, which emerged from a brutal four-year drought last year, 44% of the state is now considered to be in a moderate drought. That’s a dramatic jump from just last week, when the figure was 13%.

Major winter storms have mostly bypassed the West, meaning that much-needed mountain snow has not fallen, said NOAA meteorologist Richard Heim, author of this week’s Drought Monitor. This winter, snow sensors across the Sierra Nevada show the snowpack is just 30% of average for this time of year.

Extremely warm weather is causing most of the precipitation to fall as rain instead of snow. “This will have major ramifications for western water managers if they don’t get some major winter storms soon,” Heim said.

Whether California heads into another drought cycle will depend largely on how much rain and snow falls during February and March.

Further east, the amount of snow on the ground is also far below average across the Colorado River Basin, where a 17-year run of mostly dry years has left reservoirs at alarmingly low levels.

“Mountain snowpack was abysmally low, reaching record low levels for this time of year in parts of New Mexico and Colorado,” Heim wrote in the monitor this week.

Climate scientists and managers of water agencies describe the situation as a “snow drought,” driven in part by winter temperatures that are well above the long-term average.

The southern Plains has also been bone-dry, where some spots haven’t seen a drop of rain in months. In Amarillo, Texas, for example, no measurable precipitation has fallen for a record 111 days…

In Oklahoma, pasture conditions were generally poor and deteriorating and 79% of the winter wheat crop was rated in poor to very poor condition, the Drought Monitor said.

Looking ahead, drought is expected to either persist or intensify over the next several months, the Climate Prediction Center said.

“The general trend of increasing drought coverage should continue through the end of April, as most areas of drought are expected to persist, along with development forecast in parts of southern California, central Colorado, and the southern Plains,” the center said.

#ColoradoRiver: Imperial Valley farmers switch to lettuce from alfalfa to bolster #LakeMead elevation

All American Canal Construction circa. 1938 via the Imperial Irrigation District

From Bloomberg (Alan Bjerga and Cindy Hoffman):

Farmers’ switching to lettuce, which uses less water because it’s cultivated only part of the year, from alfalfa, a thirsty year-round crop, helped push the lake to 1,087.6 feet (331.5 meters) above sea level as of Jan. 31. That’s more than 1 foot higher than a year ago and above the benchmark of 1,075 feet, at which point regional water restrictions kick in.

The improvement, which brought a sigh of relief to a dry region, is mostly due to a record snowpack in the Sierra Nevada mountains that ended California’s drought by early 2017. But some credit goes to farmers, the biggest users of the region’s water, who in some places have been doing exactly what climate experts say they should be doing—switching crops for conservation reasons.

A look at 28 years of data from the Imperial Valley—a major crop-growing region spanning southeast California, bordering Mexico and Arizona and relying on Colorado River water—shows how farmers battling water scarcity have shifted acreage.

Acreage planted in alfalfa, a low-value forage crop, has declined 25 percent to 148,642 acres since 2001, according to December 2017 figures. Lettuce growth has increased 79 percent to 31,382 acres in the same period.

The shift is a combination of market and government incentives, said John Fleck, director of the University of New Mexico’s Water Resources Program in Albuquerque. Water-sharing agreements with local governments have reduced use at the same time that distribution networks for fruits and vegetables have improved, making it possible to ship fresh lettuce and other produce to more markets.

“Cutting water use doesn’t have to be the end of agriculture,” Fleck said. “Farmers with less water to use will maximize their drops, and find a way to maximize their profits.”

The changeover challenges the conventional wisdom that water demands don’t ease. It doesn’t, however, solve the long-term problems of the Colorado River. This year could be more difficult, with snowpack well below normal, according to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The basin’s population may rise as much as 91 percent by 2060.

@EPA is considering deploying robotic explorers to ascertain conditions in troublesome mines

Explorer: This robot may have made a momentous discovery in a 2,000-year-old tunnel in Mexico. Photo credit: DailyMail.com.

From the Associated Press (Dan Elliott) via The Detroit News:

the EPA is considering using robots and other sophisticated technology to help prevent these types of “blowouts” or clean them up if they happen. But first the agency has to find out what’s inside the mines, some of which date to Colorado’s gold rush in the 1860s.

Wastewater containing toxic heavy metals has been spewing from hundreds of inactive mines nationwide for decades, the product of complicated and sometimes poorly understood subterranean flows.

Mining creates tainted water in steps: Blasting out tunnels and processing ore exposes long-buried, sulfur-bearing rocks to oxygen. The sulfur and oxygen mix with natural underground water flows to create sulfuric acid. The acidic water then leaches heavy metals out of the rocks.

To manage and treat the wastewater, the EPA needs a clear idea of what’s inside the mines, some of which penetrate thousands of feet into the mountains. But many old mines are poorly documented.

Investigating with robots would be cheaper, faster and safer than humans.

“You can send a robot into an area that doesn’t have good air quality. You can send a robot into an area that doesn’t have much space,” said Rebecca Thomas, project manager for the EPA’s newly created Gold King Superfund site, officially known as the Bonita Peak Mining District.

Instruments on the robots could map the mines and analyze pollutants in the water.

They would look more like golf carts than the personable robots from “Star Wars” movies. Hao Zhang, an assistant professor of computer science at the Colorado School of Mines, envisions a battery-powered robot about 5 feet long with wheels or tracks to get through collapsing, rubble-strewn tunnels.

Zhang and a team of students demonstrated a smaller robot in a mine west of Denver recently. It purred smoothly along flat tunnel floors but toppled over trying to negotiate a cluttered passage…

A commercial robot modified to explore abandoned mines – including those swamped with acidic wastewater – could cost about $90,000 and take three to four years to develop, Zhang said.

Significant obstacles remain, including finding a way to operate remotely while deep inside a mine, beyond the reach of radio signals. One option is dropping signal-relay devices along the way so the robot stays in touch with operators. Another is designing an autonomous robot that could find its own way.

Researchers also are developing sophisticated computerized maps showing mines in three dimensions. The maps illustrate where the shafts intersect with natural faults and provide clues about how water courses through the mountains.

“It really helps us understand where we have certainty and where we have a lot of uncertainty about what we think’s happening in the subsurface,” said Ian Bowen, an EPA hydrologist. “So it’s a wonderful, wonderful tool.”

The EPA also plans to drill into mines from the surface and lower instruments into the bore holes, measuring the depth, pressure and direction of underground water currents.

Tracing the currents is a challenge because they flow through multiple mines and surface debris. Many tunnels and faults are connected, so blocking one might send water out another.

“You put your finger in the dike here, where’s the water going to come out?” Thomas said.

Once the EPA finishes investigating, it will look at technologies for cleansing the wastewater.

Options range from traditional lime neutralization – which causes the heavy metals dissolved in the water to form particles and drop out – to more unusual techniques that involve introducing microbes.

The choice has consequences for taxpayers. If no company is found financially responsible, the EPA pays the bill for about 10 years and then turns it over to the state. Colorado currently pays about $1 million a year to operate a treatment plant at one Superfund mine. By 2028, it will pay about $5.7 million annually to operate plants at three mines, not including anything at the Bonita Peak site.

The EPA views the Colorado project as a chance for the government and entrepreneurs to take risks and try technology that might be useful elsewhere.

But the agency – already dealing with a distrustful public and critical politicians after triggering the Gold King spill – said any technology deployed in Colorado will be tested first, and the public will have a chance to comment before decisions are made.

On April 7, 2016, the Environmental Protection Agency proposed adding the “Bonita Peak Mining District” to the National Priorities List, making it eligible for Superfund. Forty-eight mine portals and tailings piles are “under consideration” to be included. The Gold King Mine will almost certainly be on the final list, as will the nearby American Tunnel. The Mayflower Mill #4 tailings repository, just outside Silverton, is another likely candidate, given that it appears to be leaching large quantities of metals into the Animas River. What Superfund will entail for the area beyond that, and when the actual cleanup will begin, remains unclear.
Eric Baker