Photo: Snow on Grays and Torreys

Pulse flow feeds more than the dry #ColoradoRiver delta — the Boulder Weekly

Young girl enjoying the river restored temporarily by the pulse flow March 2014 via National Geographic
Young girl enjoying the river restored temporarily by the pulse flow March 2014 via National Geographic

From the Boulder Weekly (Elizabeth Miller):

The people threw a party.

“People really turned out for it, I think because they knew it was being sent there deliberately to see the good that it could do, and also because it hadn’t flowed like that for a long time,” says Jennifer Pitt, with the Environmental Defense Fund, one of the parties instrumental in orchestrating the bi-national agreement between Mexico and the U.S. to allow for this flow of water.

“We’re talking about a bed of the river about 200 feet from bank to bank, the bed of the river is virtually just sand, and it has been like that since 1960, with some exceptions of water coming down maybe four times. But from 1960 to now … the Colorado river has been 16 inches wide and 6 inches deep, and you have three generations of people, that’s what they’ve had since 1960, a river that’s 16 inches wide and 6 inches deep, then suddenly you have a river that’s 200 feet wide and 16 feet deep,” says Jorge Figueroa of Western Resource Advocates, who went down to document the pulse flow. Before the water came, people went to the riverbed to use drugs and drink alcohol, run motorcross bikes and jeeps.

“The river literally flushed that out, and brought this wholesome, healthy experience,” Figueroa says.

Pitt was there for two weeks to watch as children who had never seen the Colorado River running through their town were brought out to see it, and elders who remembered the river before it began to shrivel up and dry out in the 1960s were brought to see it and remember that past. A month later, photos showed that there were taco stands, live music and a ferris wheel alongside the river, and boats floating in it. They were still celebrating its return.

“When I was down there for that pulse flow, the song that kept going through my head was, ‘You don’t know what you got ’til it’s gone,’ but in some ways, when something’s gone for a really long time, and you get decades into it, people kind of get used to the absence. Like, the kids had no memory of a river,” Pitt says. “But then, if it reappears for a moment, you get this glimpse of what could be. I think a lot of people got a little glimmer of what a restored river could look like, and so I think it’s in that that we have a real hope for long-term progress in this area.”

Western Resource Advocates has worked on Colorado River issues for the last 15 years, beginning with dam operations and endangered species, but also now working on the water use programs designed to help cities live within their means when it comes to water. They’re often looking at the issue from the “30,000-foot level,” talking in acre feet and wrangling with policy. For this trip to Mexico, Figueroa wanted to focus on a different story — the people.

He also wanted to bring this story home to the upper Colorado River, and helped to convene a panel at the Americas Latino Eco-Festival to discuss the pulse flow and what it meant for the ecosystems and the people far down river. Speakers include himself, Pitt, the Sonoran Institute’s Colorado River Delta Program Project Manager Karen Schlatter and San Luis Rio Colorado resident Nancy Saldaña, who led a campaign to clean up the river bed before the water arrived, clearing four tons of garbage that included needles, glass and cars.

“Most people, at least in the United States, don’t see it as a river that actually goes to Mexico and reaches the Sea of Cortez, or that should reach the Sea of Cortez, so this experience for me really crystallized the fact that all Colorado River water users are an integral part of the Colorado River — from the headwaters to the Sea of Cortez, it’s our river. Our river does not stop at Morelos Dam,” Figueroa says. “This issue of grandmothers and their granddaughters enjoying their majestic river, or being deprived of such a majestic river for three generations, should resonate with all Colorado River water users, whether you’re a farmer or somebody who lives in Denver, or in Phoenix, or a federal policymaker. I think this resonates more than acre feet of water. … I would hope that the cat is out of the bag, that after this event, hopefully it’s going to be very, very hard to deprive these people of their majestic river.”[…]

From the city of San Luis Rio Colorado, the pulse flow of water continued on down toward the delta at the Sea of Cortez, once 2 million acres of wetlands and riparian habitat. The delta has since gone so dry and dead that it’s threatening to the endangered species, including the Yuma clapper rails, Virginia rails and California black rails, and migratory birds such as warblers and flycatchers, that rely on that vanishing thread of green.

“There were still some flows going down there, but really, over the drought over the last 10, 15 years, it got extremely dry and even the remnant habitat that was down there was beginning to disappear,” Pitt says.

This spring, for less than 24 hours, while the tide was up and that pulse of river water was reaching for its ancient home, the Colorado River touched the sea…

The water for the pulse itself came from a project the U.S. funded with $22 million to line an irrigation ditch in Mexico, decreasing water loss there.

Essentially, Pitt says, the science team was “handed a bucket of water” and told to pour it out how they thought best. The team included scientists from both countries, and one who had worked on the experimental flow program in the Grand Canyon. The advice from that scientist was clear: Whatever you design, it isn’t going to be right. His suggestion was to deliver the water in a way that the signal of what the water was doing would be clear.

“Ecosystems, rivers, are a real landscape, it’s not like a lab experiment where you can tightly control all the variables,” Pitt says. “We believe this pulse flow will have done some good at the end of the day and we also believe we’re going to learn a ton from it and the conservation community is definitely going to be working hard to make sure we get an opportunity to do another pulse flow in the future, to make sure there is more water committed to the area and hopefully we’ll do it next time with the hindsight of this pulse flow and do it better.”

There’s precedent to suggest that the results will be positive. In the 1980s and ’90s, flood events brought water to areas of the delta that had been dry for decades.

“Everyone had kind of given up the delta for dead, like a dead ecosystem that had been desecrated and degraded, but after these flows, a lot of the vegetation was able to come back, so that demonstrated to the conservation community and scientists that this is a pretty resilient ecosystem that can withstand long periods of no flows, little flows, and then boom, you have water and the vegetation can make a comeback,” Schlatter says. “That’s what sparked the idea to dedicate environmental flows to the region with the notion that even a little bit of water in this area can really make a difference and bring back a lot of habitat.”[…]

In the Sonoran Institute’s restoration efforts in riparian habitat, removing nonnative species like salt cedar and replanting native ones, the saplings are irrigated for two or three years, and then have root systems deep enough to tap into the groundwater. The area has a level of groundwater favorable to restoration efforts that’s fed by agricultural return flows, and Minute 319 also allows for base flows into the Colorado River in Mexico to support those efforts.

“It is resilient, but it does need water, so without any intervention at all, there’s resilience up to a certain point, and if we keep taking water from the system, the river system never sees water again, it will eventually collapse and the invasive species that have already established there will become too dominant for native species to reestablish if there were ever flows in the future,” Schlatter says. “So I think the pulse flow came at a really critical time in this ecosystem’s trajectory where going too much longer with these flood flows is kind of a dangerous thing because you’re never sure how long is too long and when having a flood flow actually won’t be enough to restore the system because it’s lost its resiliency, so it does require intervention at some point.”

The pulse this year was intended to stimulate the germination of native vegetation — cottonwoods and willows require flood conditions to germinate, and the pulse, on a very small scale, simulated the kind of floods that used to hit that region each year.

“When some of the scientists who really brought up the idea that a pulse flow could do some real good for the delta’s ecosystem, the original speculation was that having that kind of a pulse flow every few years would probably be enough, because it’s the creation of cottonwood and willow habitat that’s critical, when you get the water up over the river’s banks, you create that disturbance that can cause those seedlings to grow. You don’t need to have that happen every year, but you do need a little bit of water provided year round, all the time, so that seedlings can continue to grow,” Pitt says. “Historically certainly it happened every year, but given that we’re fighting the uphill battle for getting just a little bit of water into this ecosystem, the thought is that every few years would work, every four or so, on average. So there is a need for some year round water to keep the roots wet, and in some places there’s adequate groundwater to do that already.”

Work to secure that year-round water has been done by the Colorado River Delta Trust, a private trust established by the Mexico-based conservation group Pronatura Noroeste, which, in addition to the Environmental Defense Fund and the Sonoran Institute, has been buying up water rights to make sure there’s a little bit of water in the river to sustain what the intermittent pulse flows, assuming they’re approved again, create.

The delta now has just a small remnant of a river left, but the big drink of water it just had is producing green up and down the river. An intensive monitoring effort undertaken by federal agencies from both countries as well as academics and nonprofits is scrutinizing details down to counting seedlings and wildlife, and should start producing numbers to quantify the effort in the coming years. It’s tough to know now, Pitt says, where things like the groundwater saw a recharge while the effects of this one-time pulse flow are still being studied.

When the five-year agreement that Mexico and the U.S. have settled on runs out at the end of 2017, they’ll be back to the drawing board and making a decision on whether to allocate water for this kind of water event again.

Signs point toward a momentum and support building for it, Pitt says, and the agreement has drawn some attention from the international community as an example of the kind of collaborative work countries can undertake to help preserve endangered transboundary rivers around the world.

“It gives me hope that we can manage our way through this and end up with the West that we want with limited water resources,” Pitt says. “That idea that the community responded and that there’s a path forward for them to take a role in stewardship of the Colorado River is a really exciting premise, and really shows a lot of promise, but clearly is dependent on this whole broader suite of governance issues. … I’d say the other community response has come from water managers, I mean, they kind of created the story, they created the pulse flow, but that sense that while the Colorado River basin in many ways is in a pretty urgent situation right now in terms of extended drought and allocation and use that exceeds our long-term supply, a sense that with our sleeves rolled up and good collaborative effort and instinct, that we can see our way to careful management that supports all the values that we want from the river, including the environment, and I’ll project a lot of stuff onto this, but including viable rural economies and thriving cities, all of which use water from the Colorado.”

The Raise the River campaign is organizing an ongoing effort to help ensure a future for the river. That campaign needs to raise $10 million by 2017 to fulfill their portion of the commitment for Minute 319 and pur chase water rights to support river restoration through the Colorado River Delta Trust. The still-in-development Colorado Water Plan also has fingers that reach to that delta, and adopting a plan that advocates for conservation is going to be key to keeping water in that delta despite a growing gap between supply and demand on the Front Range of Colorado.

“I don’t think it’s ever going to be that the full flow of the Colorado River is down there, which is what it was in the early 20th century. There’s 40 million people depending on that river, 4 million acres of farm land, 15 percent of U.S. ag produce — it’s just too big,” Pitt says. “But I do think there’s hope that the basic connectivity could be reestablished between the river that flows in the U.S. and the upper gulf, at least on a periodic basis. Not necessarily on a regular basis. But connectivity, a corridor, a ribbon of green that’s so important for the birds and for the people to see that there’s a natural area in their midst, not just a sandy desert.”

More Minute 319 coverage here. More Colorado River Basin coverage here.

State Water Plan draws crowd — Pine River Times #COWaterPlan

Colorado Water Plan website screen shot November 1, 2013
Colorado Water Plan website screen shot November 1, 2013

From the Pine River Times (Carole McWilliams):

A group of legislators from around the state were in Durango on Aug. 27 to take comments on the Colorado Water Plan now being drafted, and the regional plan that will be part of it.

The legislators are members of an Interim Water Resources Review Committee who are following a bill passed in the spring requiring them to hold such meetings in each of nine major drainage basins around the state…

Many of the attendees said they didn’t know enough about what’s actually in the state plan or the Southwest Basin Roundtable Implementation Plan to ask questions or comment.

Several people worried that the federal government is trying to take control of all the water in the U.S. and take people’s property rights via recent updates to the Clean Water Act rules on what constitutes “waters of the U.S.” Speakers urged people to submit opposition comments before the comment deadline in October.

Another concern is federal agencies trying claim bypass flows and to require private water rights holders to turn over those rights as a condition to get or renew a use permit on federal land.

Southwest Water Conservation District Director Bruce Whitehead cited area Forest Service and BLM land management plans. “This isn’t a new issue,” he said. “These plans come up with things about bypass flows.” The state has opposed that, and memorandums of understanding “have encouraged federal agencies to use state (in-stream flow) programs instead of imposing bypass flow requirements.”

It’s also one of the concerns with federal special use permits, he said. State agencies have protested that. “These aren’t guidelines. They are standards in the Forest Plan. We see it as double dipping, using the state in-stream flow program but also wanting bypass flows… The feds say this will be a template throughout the state and maybe the West.”

Whitehead continued, “Few of our concerns have been addressed. That’s why we’re bringing it to this panel. So far, we’ve been unsuccessful in working with these federal agencies in a cooperative collaborative manner.”

Participants grouped around tables discussed water issues and picked one of their members to summarize their comments to the larger group.

There was strong support for water conservation as part of the plan, such as the large percentage of municipal use that goes for lawns; for more water storage, and for Colorado’s prior appropriation system of “first in time, first in right.”

Tom Morris, staff attorney for the legislature, commented, “To many people, that is the Colorado water plan.”

Several people supported elimination of the “use it or lose it” part of the prior appropriations system, because it discourages more efficient water use.

There was support for new water storage in Southwest Colorado to keep water the area is entitled to from flowing out of state. Another big point was that water users in each basin should fully develop their own water, including storage, before they seek diversions from other basins or buy up ag water for municipal use.

Summarizing comments from his table, La Plata/ Archuleta Water District board member Dan Lynn said, “One point we wanted to make is that every drop of water in the state starts on federal land, but every drop of water doesn’t belong to the federal government.” He noted he worked for 36 years for the Natural Resources Conservation Service and said, “Don’t let those people get your rights.”[…]

Ignacio area rancher and president of the American National Cattle Women Patti Buck urged people to send formal comments on the EPA rule change on what constitutes waters of the U.S. subject to regulation.

“When we bought our ranch, we paid extra for our water shares” compared to land with no water rights, she said. No water means no grass, which means no cattle, which means no food, she said.

One participant, Margaret Cozine, had a different concern. She wants the state to not only allow, but encourage, rain water harvesting from rooftops, and re-use of gray water, as several other states do. She wants it for her garden and argued it does not damage downstream water rights.

Water committee chair Randy Fischer urged people to send comments on the water plan. There will be another series of meetings around the state once the draft plan is released. “Please stay tuned,” he said.

More Colorado Water Plan coverage here.

The latest Eagle River Watershed Council newsletter “The Current” is hot off The presses

Eagle River Basin
Eagle River Basin

Click here to read the newsletter. Here’s an excerpt:

In 2014, the Watershed Council has had the opportunity to work with various summer camps throughout the valley. We joined the Sonnenalp, Vail Mountain Club and Vail Mountain School’s Summer Quest program for watershed-themed days. We learned about watershed health & pollutants to our waterways; we removed invasive weeds like Canada thistle from our river banks; we found hundreds of bugs in Gore Creek; and we spent hours outside enjoying all that is summertime in Colorado![…]

The Eagle River Cleanup is Saturday the 13th!

We all love to play on our rivers and streams during the warm months but all that love can take its toll. That’s why each September, we get down and dirty for a day of cleaning along the waterways that we all cherish.

More Eagle River watershed coverage here.

Reclamation Releases the Final Environmental Assessment for Developing Hydropower at Drop 4 of the South Canal

Uncompahgre River watershed
Uncompahgre River watershed

Here’s the release from the US Bureau of Reclamation (Terry Stroh/Justyn Hock):

Reclamation announced today that it has released a final environmental assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a hydropower project at Drop 4 of the South Canal, part of the Uncompahgre Project in Montrose, Colorado.

The project, proposed by the Uncompahgre Valley Water Users Association, will be located at existing Reclamation facilities on the South Canal. A Lease of Power Privilege will authorize the use of federal facilities and Uncompahgre Project water to construct, operate, and maintain a 4.8 megawatt hydropower facility and 1.27 miles of associated interconnect power lines.

The hydropower plant will operate on irrigation water conveyed in the South Canal, and no new diversions will occur as a result of the hydropower project. Construction activities and operation of the hydropower plant will not affect the delivery of irrigation water.

The final environmental assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact is available on our web site or a copy can be received by contacting Reclamation.

More hydroelectric/hydropower coverage here.

Denver Water — installing wood stave pipe -May 1910

The latest ENSO discussion is hot off the presses


Click here to read the latest discussion. Here’s an excerpt:

Synopsis: The chance of El Niño is at 60-65% during the Northern Hemisphere fall and winter.

During August 2014, above-average sea surface temperatures (SST) continued across much of the equatorial Pacific. Most of the Niño indices warmed during the month with values of +0.5°C in Niño-4, +0.4°C in Niño-3.4, +0.4°C in Niño-3, and +0.8°C in Niño-1+2. Subsurface heat content anomalies (averaged between 180o-100oW) also increased during the month as above-average subsurface temperatures developed across the central and east-central equatorial Pacific. This warming is associated with the downwelling phase of an equatorial oceanic Kelvin wave triggered in July by low-level westerly wind anomalies. Westerly wind anomalies continued in the central and eastern part of the basin early in August, but weakened by the end of the month. Enhanced easterly upper-level wind anomalies have prevailed during much of the month, and the Southern Oscillation Index has been negative. However, convective cloudiness remained generally near average over most of the region, except for below average cloudiness observed across the central and western Pacific. The lack of a coherent atmospheric El Niño pattern and near-average SSTs in the central Pacific indicate a continuation of ENSO-neutral.

Most of the models continue to predict El Niño to develop during September-November and to continue into early 2015. A majority of models and the multi-model averages favor a weak El Niño. At this time, the consensus of forecasters expects El Niño to emerge during September-October and to peak at weak strength during the late fall and early winter (3-month values of the Niño-3.4 index between 0.5°C and 0.9°C). The chance of El Niño is at 60-65% during the Northern Hemisphere fall and winter (click CPC/IRI consensus forecast for the chance of each outcome).

NASA: The world now has a new view of snow and rain

Water, sewer rate hikes before Glenwood Springs Council — Glenwood Springs Post-Independent

Glenwood Springs via Wikipedia
Glenwood Springs via Wikipedia

From the Glenwood Springs Post-Independent (John Stroud):

Based on a recent cost recovery analysis, the city will need to increase water rates by 10 percent and sewer rates by 7 percent, according to recommendation from Glenwood Public Works Director Robin Millyard.

Under the rate proposal, the base rate for water service would increase from $11.97 to $13.17 per month, while the base sewer rate for in-city customers would increase from $58.36 to $62.45. Additional costs apply for using more than 2,000 gallons per month.

The rate adjustments are necessary to meet revenue requirements for the remainder of the year, Millyard indicated in a memo to City Council members. The analysis also suggests more increases will be needed in future years to keep up with the costs of providing water and wastewater services, he said.

City sewer rates were increased anywhere from 20 to 30 percent per year from 2006 through 2011 in an effort to pay for the city’s new wastewater treatment plant. Customers were given a break for two straight years in 2012 and 2013 when no rate adjustments were made.

During the same period, water rates rose anywhere from 4 to 10 percent. There was no water rate increase in 2013, however.

A comparison with other area municipalities provided by Millyard shows that Glenwood Springs’ new water rates would remain the lowest in Garfield County. Sewer rates, on the other hand, are somewhat higher by comparison, due to the ongoing cost recovery for the new sewer plant.

The rate proposals will be discussed during a 5 p.m. council work session Thursday, Sept. 4, and will be considered for formal adoption during the regular 7 p.m. meeting at City Hall, 101 W. Eighth St.

More infrastructure coverage here.

September 4, 1964 — the first generator went online at Glen Canyon Dam #ColoradoRiver

More Colorado River Basin coverage here.