New partnership ready to lead historic canal into the future: Canal Collaborative will formalize roles, responsibilities along the High Line Canal News on Tap

Highline Canal trail map. Credit: Google maps via Water Education Colorado

Click the link to read the article from Denver Water (Jay Adams and Steve Snyder):

The High Line Canal Conservancy has formalized a public-private partnership with Denver Water and 11 jurisdictions to preserve, protect and enhance the 71-mile High Line Canal.

Members of the new Canal Collaborative will work together to support the canal corridor as it evolves from its role as an irrigation channel owned by Denver Water and expands into a new linear park and emerging stormwater management system.

enver Water CEO/Manager Jim Lochhead takes part in a signing ceremony held Jan. 26 to officially launch the Canal Collaborative, a public-private partnership aimed at guiding the future of the High Line Canal. Photo credit: Denver Water.

The agreement creating the collaborative formalizes roles and responsibilities for the long-term management, funding and governance of the canal.

“This partnership was built on the premise that together we can do more for the canal than any one entity can do alone. The deep respect for varied local perspectives, combined with the power of the community’s vision and commitment has been a winning strategy that has resulted in a common vision and new governance structure to ensure the canal is cared for as a vital backbone of our region’s open space system for generations to come,” said Harriet Crittenden LaMair, executive director of the High Line Canal Conservancy.

“Denver Water has a century-old canal that has outlived its usefulness,” said Jim Lochhead, CEO/Manager at Denver Water. “We wanted to transform the canal into a recreational and environmental crown jewel for the region and with the help of a dozen partners who shared the vision, we have come together to realize that vision through the Canal Collaborative.”

Watch the High Line Canal Conservancy’s State of the Canal news conference and learn about new projects along the canal in this TAP story.

Several members of the newly formed Canal Collaborative gathered along the High Line Canal on Jan. 26, to celebrate the signing of the landmark partnership. Left to right in the picture above are: Jim Lochhead, Denver Water CEO/Manager; Paula Herzmark, HLCC board chair; Harriet Crittenden LaMair, HLCC executive director; Nancy Sharpe, Arapahoe County Commissioner; Shannon Carter, Arapahoe County Open Spaces director; Tom Roode, head of Denver Water operations and maintenance; Kendra Black, Denver City Councilwoman; Scott Gilmore, deputy executive director of Denver Parks and Recreation. Photo credit: Denver Water. Photo credit: Denver Water.

Did an underground #coal fire spark the #MarshallFire, the state’s most destructive fire? Investigators look into coal mine near Marshall Fire as possible source —

Marshall Consolidated Coal Mine (Langford, Colo.) Date [1885-1910]. Langford is another name for Marshall, Colo. Photo credit: Carnegie Library for Local History

Click the link to read the article on (Bayan Wang). Here’s an excerpt:

Authorities confirmed that the now dormant Marshall Coal Mine near the area believed to be the starting point of the Dec. 30 Marshall Fire is among many other potential sources of the inferno that are being looked into.

The Marshall Coal Mine is located just south of the Marshall Mesa trailhead off Highway 93 and is one of 38 abandoned coal mines in the state that are listed to have some level of fire activity, according to a 2018 inventory report of Colorado underground coal mine fires…

In 2005, a brush fire was ignited by a hot vent from the Marshall Coal Mine, which was quickly contained, according to the 2018 report. As a result, officials filled the vent with 275 tons of small rocks.

In 2016, authorities went back for touch-ups and to cover up small vents.

Maintaining mines with any level of fire activity is important. Former US Forest Service Branch Chief of the Rocky Mountains Region Jim Krugman points out that fires that spark from coal mines can be very complex…

Among the coal mines investigation, authorities are also looking into whether a burning shed, downed power lines or human activity near the starting point of the fire were the possible cause.

Looking towards Boulder at the Marshall Fire December 30, 2021 From 53rd and Stuart in Adams County. Note the atmospheric mountain wave, where winds accelerate down the slope of mountains, extend only a short distance downwind from the mountains, then subside further downwind and blow in the opposite direction, much like the backward flowing current behind a rock in a swift river.

Here’s a story map about the Marshall Fire from NOAA:

On December 30, 2021, a combination of long-term drought and hurricane-force winds set the stage for what would become the most destructive fire in Colorado history in terms of property loss. Driven by ferocious winds, a grass fire quickly advanced from the outskirts of Boulder on the neighboring cities of Louisville and Superior. Horrified residents had little time to evacuate as the wildland fire transformed into an urban firestorm. This story recounts the events of that day from the perspective of NOAA’s National Weather Service meteorologists who sent the first high-wind warnings in the hours before dawn, and continued to alert residents throughout the day as the worst-case scenario unfolded.

Marshall Fire December 30, 2021. Photo credit: Boulder County

A mild-mannered bicyclist triggered a huge debate over humans’ role in #ClimateChange – in the early 20th century — The Conversation

Guy Stewart Callendar connected carbon dioxide concentrations with rising temperatures.
GS Callendar Archive, University of East Anglia

Sylvia G. Dee, Rice University

In 1938, a British engineer and amateur meteorologist made a discovery that set off a fierce debate about climate change.

Scientists had known for decades that carbon dioxide could trap heat and warm the planet. But Guy Callendar was the first to connect human activities to global warming.

He showed that land temperatures had increased over the previous half-century, and he theorized that people were unwittingly raising Earth’s temperature by burning fossil fuels in furnaces, factories and even his beloved motorcycles.

When Callendar published his findings, it set off a firestorm. The scientific establishment saw him as an outsider and a bit of a meddling gentleman scientist. But, he was right.

His theory became widely known as “the Callendar Effect.” Today, it’s known as global warming. Callendar defended his theory until his death in 1964, increasingly bewildered that the science met such resistance from those who did not understand it.

Building on over a century of climate science

A theoretical basis for climate change had been developed over the 114 years leading up to Callendar’s research.

Scientists including Joseph Fourier, Eunice Foote, John Tyndall and Svante Arrhenius had developed an understanding of how water vapor in the Earth’s atmosphere trapped heat, noted that carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also absorbed large quantities of heat and speculated about how increasing fossil fuel use could raise Earth’s temperature and change the climate.

However, these scientists spoke only of future possibilities. Callendar showed global warming was already happening.

A page from a Callendar's 1938 paper show charts of temperature rise
A page from Guy Callendar’s 1938 paper shows how he tracked and calculated CO2 changes, all in his spare time.
GS Callendar, 1938

An engineer runs his own climate experiments

Callendar received a certificate in mechanics and mathematics from City and Guilds College, London, in 1922 and went to work for his father, a well-known British physicist. The two shared interests in physics, motorcycles, racing and meteorology.

Callendar would later join the U.K. Ministry of Supply in armament research during World War II and continued to conduct war-related research at Langhurst, a secret research facility, after the war.

But his climate change work was done on his own time. Callendar kept journals with detailed weather data, including carbon dioxide levels and temperature. In an innovative paper published in 1938, he claimed there was an “increase in mean temperature, due to the artificial production of carbon dioxide.”

He averaged diverse sets of temperature data from all over the world, primarily using the Smithsonian publication “World Weather Records,” and derived global average temperatures that track very well with current estimates of the average temperatures of the time.

Tweet of graph showing Callendar's measurements

Ed Hawkins/Twitter

He also calculated how much carbon dioxide humans were putting into the atmosphere – the annual net human addition. In 1938, it was about 4.3 billion tons, which compares well with current estimates for that year of about 4.2 billion tons. Note that global carbon dioxide emissions in 2018 were about 36 billion tons.

Gathering published data on carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, Callendar created a graph correlating temperature increases over time with increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

What Callendar discovered

Perhaps most importantly, Callendar recognized that new data on the heat absorption of carbon dioxide at wavelengths different from that of water vapor meant that adding carbon dioxide would trap more heat than water vapor alone.

In the period before Callendar’s paper, key scientists thought the huge volume of water vapor in the atmosphere, one of the “greenhouse” gases that keep Earth warm, would dwarf any contribution by carbon dioxide to Earth’s heat balance. However, heat is radiated out to space as waves, with a range of wavelengths, and water vapor absorbs only some of those wavelengths. Callendar knew that recent, more precise absorption data showed that carbon dioxide absorbed heat at wavelengths that water missed.

Portrait of Guy Stewart Callendar
Guy Stewart Callendar in 1934.
G.S. Callendar Archive, University of East Anglia

Callendar also considered different layers in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide concentrates at a higher altitude in the atmosphere than water vapor. Atmospheric water vapor evaporates and then precipitates out of the atmosphere as rain or snow, but adding carbon dioxide severely upsets Earth’s energy balance because it stays in the atmosphere for hundreds of years. Carbon dioxide forms a heat-trapping layer high in the atmosphere, absorbing heat that radiates upward from Earth’s surface and then emitting it back towards Earth’s surface. Callendar’s paper provided insight into this mechanism.

After Callendar published his paper, global warming caused by human activities generating carbon dioxide was widely referred to as the “Callendar Effect.”

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However, his 1938 view was limited. Callendar did not foresee the magnitude of temperature rise that the world now faces, or the danger. He actually speculated that by burning carbon we might forestall “the return of the deadly glaciers.”

His paper projected a 0.39 degree Celsius temperature rise by the 21st century. The world today is already 1.2 C (2.2 F) warmer than before the industrial era – three times the magnitude of the effect Callendar predicted.

Backlash to the human connection

The “Callendar Effect” faced immediate resistance. Comments of initial reviewers questioned his data and methods.

The debate Callendar ignited continued through the rest of the 20th century. Temperature and carbon dioxide data, meanwhile, accumulated.

By the late 20th century, reviews of climate science held stark warnings about the path the world was on as humans continued to burn fossil fuels. The debate Callendar triggered is long since over.

Scientists from around the world, brought together by the United Nations and the World Meteorological Organization, have been reviewing the research and evidence since 1990. Their reports confirm: The science is clear about humans’ role in climate change. The danger is real and the effects of climate change are already evident all around us.

Neil Anderson, a retired chemical engineer and chemistry teacher, contributed to this article.The Conversation

Sylvia G. Dee, Assistant Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences, Rice University

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.